Fuel oil treatment.
The magnetic treatment of fuel makes it possible to change its structure, destroy its long molecular bonds of compound hydrocarbons, which gives rise to free radicals and intensification of the burning process. The modification of fuel properties entails chemical changes in the burning process and, consequently, alters the burning products. This puts a damper on ecological problems. It is noteworthy that the fuel oil treated by our MHDRS will produce significant economical factors.
The application of hydrocarbon fuels creates a host of environmental hazards and, therefore, calls for the protection against harmful wastes and the recycling of oil contaminated water. The solution proves to be quite expensive. Hence we have come forward with a proposal to do both: relax this snag and yield direct economical effects. Our technology has been designed to protect the atmosphere and water alike against hazardous elements such as NO x , CO, soot, multiple nucleus hydrocarbons, oil products and other dangerous substances. Our technology hinges upon the idea of fuel oil burning as water and fuel oil emulsions.
The method of water and fuel oil emulsion combustion is known far and wide. Towards, this end, it is necessary that the water and fuel oil emulsion be readied as a homogeneous mixture of fuel oil and moisture to be added in “the water-oil” proportion. The water is present inside the fuel sheath as a dispersion phase in the shape of particles with the diameter of a few microns. A stable combustion and burning process may be secured provided these conditions are observed with the moisture of the water and fuel oil emulsion reaching 20% and, at times, going beyond 50%. Enhanced efficiency of the emulsion burning even at extremely low excesses of air accounts for a micro explosion of the emulsion drops owing to the boiling temperature differences of water and fuel oil. Once further atomization of emulsion drops is employed, their evaporation rate accelerates and, consequently, the fuel mixes with the air more readily. As there are products of water dissociation within the burning ambience, the combustion of fuel oil goes through considerable intensification.
We have designed a magnetic hydrodynamic resonance system for modification and emulsification of fuel oil (MHDRS-2004M) in order to prepare conditional water and fuel oil emulsions with specific moisture content, dispersion, viscosity, etc. The use of wastewater as a make-up line makes it possible to treat by flame the considerable quantities of up to 20% of fuel consumption per one boiler. This will put the heat power station or the boiler on the footing of a reduced wastes enterprise by recycling all the wastewater contaminated by oil products. The same effect is produced once the moisture-enriched natural gas is exposed to the combustion.
The combustion of water and fuel oil emulsion alongside the natural gas with the moisture added shall lower the temperature within the ambience of maximum generation of nitrogen oxides and shall, consequently, lead to a significant reduction (30-35%) in their concentration in the smoke gases. NO may be further suppressed in the case of nitrogen enriched solutions being employed in the capacity of the make-up moisture alongside the wastewater. To facilitate the process in the prescribed fashion the fuel burning must be arranged properly. A solution or Ca(OH) 2 weak suspension may also be applied to bring down the concentration of sulphur oxides when burning sulphuric fuel oil included into the make-up water.
The formation of multiple nucleus hydrocarbons when burning the organic fuel has not been subjected to thorough research as yet. The concentration of C 20 H 12 in the smoke gases is known to reduce by an additional combustion of the products of incomplete burning and the temperature rise in the burning zone (over 1500°C) as well as introduction of special inhibitors. It has been established that the concentration of C 20 H 12 in the fuel burning products may scale down dramatically once the moisture content is fed into the burning zone with the subsequent dissociation of water molecules into H+ or OH- ions.
Heading from the foregoing, i.e. the impact of moisture factors or reagent solutions inside the high temperature fuel combustion ambience on the hazardous content (NO x , SO 2 , CO, C 20 H 12 et alia) of the smoke gases and possible treatment of the waste water by combustion, it is presumed that the burning of fuel oil in the form of water and fuel oil emulsion or natural gas with the moisture content may be regarded as a complex, multi-purpose and eco-friendly technology. The application of these techniques has lived up to the economical expectations as they bring about a more rational use for fuel heat capacity. The implementation thereof does not entail considerable investment either. The practical application of this technology at existing heat power stations and boilers will create yet another benefit: the implementation of the techniques does not require considerable design related modifications. Nor changes are needed for the gas line. Once the boilers switch over to the water and fuel oil combustion some slight corrections shall be introduced to the fuel oil line of the heat power station or the boiler. Therefore, the technology proposed herein is quite compatible with the technologies for fuel combustion performed by contemporary industrial equipment.
The liquid fuel shall be preliminary prepared by way of magnetic and hydrodynamic resonance treatment in MHDRS-2004M in order to yield a homogeneous and highly dispersed condition of the water and fuel oil mixture. This will improve physical and technological traits of the fuel, i.e. (dispersion rate, homogeneity, time stability) and will boost its performance.
The efficiency of fuel oil emulsion combustion is determined, first and foremost, by the presence and strength of globule micro explosions inside the flame jet. It has been established by experiment that the reduction of globule sizes plays down the micro explosion effect or explosion power, which is defined by a relative velocity of drop fragments and their number. The optimum size of fuel oil emulsion dispersion phase brings the maximum effect inside MHDRS-2004M.
HEAT TRANSFER – WATER CONTENT RELATIONSHIP OF FUEL OIL
There is quite an obvious answer to this particular question: when burning the water enriched fuel oil the heat transfer drops in proportion to the increase of the water content. This is an indisputable fact for the “traditional” fuel oil enriched by water due to exterior circumstances. Such fuel oil contains the water in the shape of lenses, blocks and large drops of over 200 mcm in diameter.
However, the emulsified fuel oil is different from the untreated one by the micro dispersed phase of the water with the diameter of the drop being 10 mcm.
The emulsified fuel oil is atomized inside the furnace in the same manner as the regular fuel oil. However, its burning process has fresh qualitative properties.
The efficiency of liquid fuel combustion is defined by its quality of atomization and readiness to mix with the oxidizer (air).
The emulsified fuel oil in atomized form contains thousands of water micro drops. Once the drops of such a fuel have found their way inside the furnace an explosion is initiated due to the instant boiling micro dispersed water drops. This gives rise to a secondary fuel atomization inside the furnace and makes it possible to conduct the burning process at a lower value of air excess factor. It is noteworthy that the nature of the process is physically dependent upon the level of fuel oil water content. However, it is more economically efficient to burn the emulsion, which has the water content in the range of 10-20%. The optimum level of the water content may be adjusted depending on a technological process and equipment features.
The efficiency of dispersed water as a dope in the emulsified fuel is achieved by atomization and chemical changes of the burning process alike. The latter has to do with the fact that the water is exposed to dissociation (H 2 O=H+ + OH-). This process yields OH- group, which exceeds oxygen by its oxidizing capacity. OH- group is present inside the fuel excess zone and successfully makes up for its shortage.
Heading from the above mentioned, it is possible to assume that during the burning of the emulsified fuel, the air consumption scales down to the near stecheometric ratio, which, consequently, boosts the efficiency of the burning process.
- compatibility of the existing fuel preparation lines at industrial enterprises;
- continuity, reliability and simplicity of emulsion formation;
- a possibility of switching the emulsion over to the major fuel without furnace stoppage;
- a possibility of controlling and regulating the water content of the emulsion and its consistent maintenance;
- no additional space and extra expenses for system installation.
Total savings generated by the system operation are made up of the following factors:
- direct fuel savings due to burning optimization;
- reduction of the air intake and cleaning requirement for boiler heated surfaces;
- insignificant costs related to environmental activities;
- insignificant costs related to the recycling of waste water.
Therefore, all these factors make it possible to substantially reduce directs costs related to power consumption, operation and ecological activities of the industrial enterprise.